The world of sports supplements (really supplements in general) is riddled with imposters, plagued by unverifiable claims, and lacking in regulation. For this reason, there are generally a lot of supplements available, but only a few that really show any efficacy in doing what they claim to do or containing what they claim to contain. For those who may be curious, the supplements with the most evidence to support their use include caffeine, creatine, beta-alanine, and sodium bicarbonate.

I’ll add another to that list — nitrates and nitrites. These aren’t really “supplements” — they’re found in leafy greens and beets…


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Fasting for weight loss is extremely popular. However, there are many other benefits of fasting that are independent of losing fat, including the proposed effects on healthspan and lifespan. While a lot of data have been gathered in animal models, there is good evidence that fasting activates several “pro-longevity” pathways in the body which make our cells more resilient, clear out damaged proteins, and improve overall metabolic health.

Many benefits of fasting may also be related to the production of ketones during fasting. Ketones are…


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It is commonly stated and generally well-accepted that metabolism declines with age. As one leaves their early 20s and 30s and enters middle-age, the body “slows down,” — burning less calories than it once did. Coincidentally, weight and fat mass start to creep up as one progresses throughout life, and the slowing down of metabolism is typically to blame.

New data suggest that many of our prior conceptions about metabolism and aging may be wrong. In this study, researchers analyzed a database of diverse individuals…


This week’s post (which originally appeared in my weekly newsletter) includes studies that are hot off the press and cover topics including the effects of childhood adverse experiences on future cardiovascular health, the long-term effects of COVID-19 on cognitive performance, and a 4-second workout that has potent effects on fitness and anaerobic performance.

Study #1: Childhood psychosocial stress is linked with impaired vascular endothelial function, lower SIRT1, and oxidative stress in young adulthood

We often single out dietary or lifestyle factors when talking about one’s risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), but mental & emotional stress may also be major factors to consider when we think about health throughout one’s lifespan. …


In this weeks post, we will be reviewing three recent studies that delve into the effects of morning light exposure on mood and behavior, whether the glycemic index of a food influences the impact of prolonged sitting on blood vessel function, and how passive heat therapy might be a useful tool to combat blood vessel dysfunction and cardiovascular disease.

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Study #1: Light affects behavioral despair involving the clock gene Period 1

Our mood is heavily influenced by our environment. Light (from the sun) is a…


This is going to be a VERY brief post about peak human performance. In one way or another, all of us are looking to optimize something — whether it be creativity, productivity, metabolic health, performance, or simply our day-to-day enjoyment of life.

While we all may prefer to do various activities at certain times of day, it turns out, biologically speaking, there IS a best time to engage in different types of cognitive and physical tasks, independent of when we may “feel like” doing them.

Much of this is related to our internal circadian rhythms — the ~24 hour clocks…


Hippocrates once said “let food be thy medicine” and indeed, what we put in our body has a substantial impact on our health. While discussing dietary patterns, macronutrient composition, and specific food compounds is beyond the scope of this post, it is generally agreed upon that eating a diet containing whole-foods and which is low in refined and processed ingredients will ultimately produce the best health outcomes.

Focusing on diet as a cornerstone of health is crucial, but exercise is another tool that can have at least an equal if not superior impact on health. I (and others) would probably…


If you’re anything like me, you relish a daily cup of coffee (or two) as a jump-start to the morning, a mid-afternoon pick-me-up, or maybe even a nighttime “wind down” drink (decaf might be best for that.) Most people drink coffee for the caffeine, but the warmth, aroma, and taste are also something to be enjoyed.

In addition to being a cognitive stimulant, caffeine is one of the most well-evidenced “ergogenic” (performance-enhancing) supplements for exercise. Caffeine has been shown to improve strength, aerobic, and anaerobic exercise performance — it’s probably one of the few sports “supplements” actually worth using.

There…


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One out of every 3 adults (around 36%) is obese, and there is no way around the fact that the world is undergoing an epidemic of poor metabolic health — which is unlikely to reverse itself anytime soon.

The health consequences of obesity are talked about widely and well-understood at a scientific level. Obesity is associated with a greater risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, shorter life expectancy, and overall worse health outcomes. …


Intermittent fasting is a recent health trend touted for its proven and hypothetical benefits for weight loss, aging, cognitive health, and metabolism. Many studies — in animals and humans — have provided strong evidence that the risk for several diseases can be reduced through various forms of intermittent fasting.

One form of intermittent fasting, known as time-restricted eating (TRE) is probably even more popular because it is generally easy to adopt, less restrictive than other forms of fasting or dietary calorie restriction, and straightforward. With TRE, one consumes all of their daily calories within a predefined “eating window.” Most commonly…

Brady Holmer

PhD candidate at the University of Florida — Science writing with a particular focus on exercise and nutrition interventions, aging, health, and disease.

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